Organic Chemistry I

Are you ready to take your knowledge of organic chemistry to the next level? Our new video series is designed to help you master the fundamental concepts of this exciting field. Whether you’re a student, a professional, or simply someone who loves science, our series is perfect for anyone looking to expand their understanding of Organic Chemistry.


Section 1: Reviewing General Chemistry

In Part 1 of our journey through Organic Chemistry, we will briefly refresh ourselves on the fundamental concepts of chemical bonding and structure.

  • Electronic Configuration of Carbon, Ionic & Covalent Bonding, Lewis Dot Structures
  • Formal Charges
  • Representing Organic Compounds, Aufbau, Pauli, and Hund
  • Hybrid Orbital Theory
  • Molecular Orbital Theory, sp3 Hybridization bonds
  • sp2 Hybridization bonds, sp Hybridization bonds
  • Molecular Orbital (MO) Energy Diagrams
  • Resonance and MO Theory, Conjugation, Drawing resonance structures
  • Resonance Structure Examples
  • Resonance Effects and Polarity

Section 2: Acids and Bases

Moving on, we’ll continue on to acidity and basicity and the chemistry of carbon compounds. We’ll explore the significance of pH and how to calculate it, as well as the importance of equilibrium constants in chemical reactions.

  • Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis Acids/Bases
  • Equilibrium, pKa
  • What makes one acid more acidic than another
  • Five factors that affect strength of conjugate base, 1) Electronegativity
  • 2) Size
  • 3) Inductive Effects
  • 4) Resonance
  • 5) Hybridization
  • Review
  • Basicity
Section 3: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

The next section covers various topics, including the classification of hydrocarbons, naming alkanes, physical properties and intramolecular forces.

  • Classification of hydrocarbons, Alkanes
  • Naming Alkanes, Complex Groups
  • Examples of Alkanes
  • Cycloalkanes
  • Functional groups, Alkyl Halides, Ethers
  • Alcohols, Amines
  • Physical properties, Intramolecular Forces, Melting point, Boiling point, Solubility
  • Conformations of Acyclic Alkanes and Cyclohexanes
  • Conformations of Open Chain Compounds – Ethane
  • Conformations Analysis of Butane
  • Cycloalkanes: cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane
  • Chair conformation of cyclohexane, Monosubstituted cyclohexane
  • Disubstituted cyclohexane, cis and trans isomerism)
Section 4: Isomers

This section delves into the fascinating world of isomerism, including structural and stereochemical aspects of isomers, their properties, and their applications. We’ll explore the key concepts of chirality, as well as the significance of Fisher Projections in organic chemistry.

  • Isomers, Structural (or Constitutional) Isomers, Constitutional vs Conformational Isomers
  • Stereoisomers
  • E or Z configuration
  • Chirality
  • R and S configuration
  • Optical Activity
  • Diasteromers
  • Multiple Chirality Centers
  • Fisher Projections Pt1
  • Fisher Projections Pt2
Section 5: Alkenes

In this section, we’ll look at Alkenes.

  • Degree of Unsaturation or Index of Hydrogen Deficiency (IHD)
  • Calculating DU
  • From DU – Drawing Structures from Molecular Formula
  • Naming Alkenes
  • Naming Alkenes – Examples
  • Classification of Alkenes, cis– and trans-
  • Classification of Alkenes, E or Z
  • Reaction Coordinate Diagrams, Exergonic vs Endergonic Reactions
  • Reaction Coordinate Diagram for the Addition of HBr to 2-Butene
Section 6: Reactions of Alkenes

In this section of the video series, we cover various reactions that involve alkenes, including hydrohalogenation, hydration, hydroboration, double slap mechanisms, oxymercuration–demercuration, and halogenation. We also discuss the regiochemistry and stereochemistry of these reactions, as well as Markovnikov’s Rule. Additionally, we cover the formation of halohydrins, epoxides, dihydroxylation with osmium tetraoxide, permanganate, ozonolysis, and catalytic hydrogenation. The section concludes with a discussion of carbenes.

  • Hydrohalogenation
  • Hydrohalogenation: regiochemistry, stereochemistry and Markovnikov’s Rule
  • Hydration Part 1
  • Hydration Part 2
  • Hydroboration Part 1
  • Hydroboration Part 2
  • Double Slap Mechanisms, Oxymercuration–demercuration of Alkenes Part 1
  • Oxymercuration–demercuration of Alkenes Part 2
  • Oxymercuration–demercuration of Alkenes Part 3
  • Halogenation Part 1
  • Halogenation Part 2
  • Halogenation Part 1
  • Halohydrin Formation Part 1
  • Halohydrin Formation Part 2
  • Epoxidation
  • Dihydroxylation with osmium tetraoxide
  • Permanganante
  • Ozonolysis Part 1
  • Ozonolysis Part 2
  • Catalytic Hydrogenation
  • Carbenes
Section 7: Reactions of Alkynes

In this section, we cover the basics of naming alkynes and their reactions. First, we introduce you to the nomenclature of alkynes with Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 of our series. Then, we explore the process of hydrohalogenation in Part 1 and Part 2, where we explain how to identify the substituent and predict the product. We also cover the addition of water to an alkyne in Part 1 and Part 2. Next, we introduce you to the reactions of hydroboration, catalytic hydrogenation, and alkylation in Part 3.

  • Naming Alkynes Part 1
  • Naming Alkynes Part 2
  • Naming Alkynes Part 3
  • Hydrohalogenation Part 1
  • Hydrohalogenation Part 2
  • Addition of Water to an Alkyne
  • Hydroboration, Catalytic Hydrogenation, Alkylation
Section 8: Delocalized Electrons

This section explores the properties and reactions of benzene, as well as other cyclic compounds with similar structures. MO energy diagrams are also introduced to explain the molecular bonding and electron geometry of these compounds. The discussion on aromatic and antiaromatic terminology highlights the importance of ring size and electronegativity in determining the stability of organic compounds. Heterocyclic aromatic compounds, such as furans and thiophens, are also introduced as they share similar properties with benzene. Finally, the use of computational methods in predicting the properties of cyclic compounds is emphasized to facilitate their drug discovery and design.

  • Facts about Benzene
  • Alkene vs Benzene Reactivity, Resonance Energy
  • Molecular Orbital for cyclic molecules
  • MO Energy Diagrams
  • Aromatic, Nonaromatic and Antiaromatic Terminology
  • More MO Energy Diagrams Part 1
  • More MO Energy Diagrams Part 2
  • More MO Energy Diagrams Part 3
  • Huckle’s Rule 
  • Examples
  • Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds, 
  • More Heterocyclic Examples
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Annulenes, Aromatic and Antiaromatic Ions
  • Annulenes
  • Aromatic and Antiaromatic Ions 
  • Diels- Alder Reaction
  • Stereochemistry of the Diels Alder Reaction – Part 1
  • Stereochemistry of the Diels Alder Reaction – Part 2
  • Stereochemistry of the Diels Alder Reaction – Part 3
  • Stereochemistry of the Diels Alder Reaction – Part 4
  • Polymers
Section 9a: Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides

In Section 9a, we will delve into the intricacies of substitute reactions of Alkyl Halides. Dr. H2O will cover key topics such as the SN2 reaction, Fisher projections, and the mechanism behind this important chemical process. Additionally, you will explore the nature of the leaving group, the reactivity of the nucleophile, and the influence of temperature on the reaction rate.

  • The SN2 Reaction
  • SN2 Reactions
  • Fisher Projections and SN2 Reactions
  • Mechanism for the SN2 Reaction 
  • Nature of the Leaving Group 
  • Reactivity of the Nucleophile Part 1
  • Reactivity of the Nucleophile Part 2
  • Reactivity of the Nucleophile Part 3
  • Reactivity of the Nucleophile Part 4
  • Reactivity of the Nucleophile Part 5
  • Solvent Effects
  • Structure of the Electrophile
  • Summary of SN2 Reaction
  • The SN1 Reaction
  • SN1 Reactions
  • SN1 Mechanism Part 1
  • SN1 Mechanism Part 2, Optical Activity, Solvolysis Reactions, Polar Protic Solvents and SN1 Reactions 
  • SN1 Rates: Effect of Substituents
  • Summary of  SN1 Reaction
  • Examples of SN2 and SN1 Reactions Part 1
  • Examples of SN2 and SN1 Reactions Part 2
  • Intramolecular Reactions
  • Competing Reactions Part 1
  • Competing Reactions Part 2
Section 9b: Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides

In this section, you will discover the intricacies of Zaitsev’s Rule, Hofmann’s Rule, and antiperiplanar attack. Understand how to apply these principles to predict the outcome of elimination reactions.  
Explore the distinction between unimolecular and bimolecular elimination reactions, and learn how to determine the regiochemistry and selectivity of E1 products.  
Gain insight into the potential energy reaction coordinate for E1 products versus SN1, and how to apply this information to predict the outcome of elimination reactions.  
Consider the dehydration of alcohols using the E1 reaction, and learn how to determine the mechanism and regiochemistry of this process.

  • Antiperiplanar Attack, Labeling Carbons and Hydrogens
  • Zaitsev’s Rule, Hofmann’s Rule
  • The Antiperiplanar Proton – A True Love Story
  • Elimination Unimolecular Reactions – E1 and E1 Mechanism
  • Regiochemistry and selectivity of E1 products (Zaitsev’s Rule)
  • Potential Energy Reaction Coordinate for E1 Products vs SN1
  • Dehydration of alcohols: the E1 reaction becomes dominant
  • Dehydration of alcohols – Mechanism
  • Practice Problems
  • Dehydration of Alcohols and Carbocation Rearrangements
  • Comparison of the SN2 and SN1, E2 and E1 Reactions 
Section 10: Alcohols, Epoxides, and Ethers

Learn the techniques for synthesizing alcohols, epoxides, and ethers.

  • Synthesis of Alcohols, Preparation of Alkyl Halide (R-X) from Alcohols
  • Using LiAlH4 and NaBH4 as Nucleophiles to make Alkanes
  • Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides (Oxiranes) to Produce Alcohols 
  • Ring Opening of Epoxides Cont.
  • Ring Opening of Oxiranes Review, Epoxides Examples
  • Oxidation Reactions, Oxidizing Agents
  • Ethers
  • Williamson Ether Synthesis: Preparation of Alkoxide RO
  • Multi-Step Reactions – Examples of Williamson Ether Synthesis, Ethers via SN1, 
  • Phosphorous Oxychloride – a dehydrating agent for alcohols
Section 11: Organometallic Compounds

In this section, you will learn about Grignard reactions, nucleophilic addition of organometallics, carboxylic acids, and conjugate 1,4-additions. You will also discover the Suzuki reaction and the Heck reaction.

  • Grignard Reaction, Reactivity of organometallic reagents
  • Nucleophilic Addition of Organometallics (Normal 1,2-Addition), 3o Alcohol, via Grignard Reaction (Normal 1,2-Addition)
  • Carboxylic Acids, via Grignard Reaction with CO2
  • Conjugate 1,4-Additions, Normal/Conjugate Examples, Synthesis
  • The Suzuki Reaction, Examples of the Suzuki Reaction
  • The Heck Reaction, Examples of Heck Reactions
Section 12: Radicals

In this section, we will be discussing radicals,their stability, and how they can be generated through heat. We will also cover the mechanism for monochlorination and bromination, as well as the addition of HBr in the presence of peroxide.

  • Radicals, Radical Stability
  • Radical Generation, Radical Generation via Heat
  • Mechanism for Monochlorination, Mechanism for Monobromination
  • Practice Problems
  • Halogenation Converts an Alkane into a Useful Compound
  • Addition of HBr in the Presence of Peroxide, Mechanism for the Addition of HBr in the Presence of Peroxide
  • N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) is Used to Brominate Allylic Carbons, N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) Mechanism
  • Designing a Synthesis 1, 2, and 3

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